Last Days Prophecy
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Gospel, Brief Summaries on OT Books
Brief Bible Studies on the Old Testament
The Bible is divided into sections that help us understand what we are reading. The Bible is divided up into different sections, different Books. Some say that the Gospel is not in the Old Testament. These articles, some quite lengthy, is me trying to tell you that the Gospel is indeed in the Old Testament!
The Law (Torah)
The Law (Torah): Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers, Deuteronomy.
These Books are mainly stories/narratives that are in chronological order.
Historical Books: Joshua; Judges; Ruth; 1 Samuel; 2 Samuel; 1 Kings; 2 Kings; 1 Chronicles; 2 Chronicles; Ezra; Nehemiah; Esther; Lamentations.
These books were composed at different times and places but are arranged in order that tells the story of GOD’S people from the occupation of Canaan through the rise and fall of the northern and southern kingdoms, and the return and rebuilding of Jerusalem in the Persian period.
Wisdom Writings: Job; Song of Solomon
Prophets: Divided into two sections based on length (Major are longer, Minor are shorter):
Major Prophets: Isaiah; Jeremiah; Lamentations; Ezekiel; Daniel.
Minor Prophets: Hosea; Joel; Amos; Obadiah; Jonah; Micah; Nahum; Habakkuk; Zephaniah; Haggai; Zechariah; Malachi
Books of Law (Torah)
GENESIS . . . Date written – 1350 B.C. . . . Author – Moses
Genesis, the first book, opens with GOD’S Creation of the world. The perfect world falls into wickedness when humans disobey GOD, and the human population divides into separate nations and languages. After many generations, GOD speaks to Abraham. Genesis 12:1-3 Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee: 2And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: 3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. (KJV)
GOD makes a Promise, or Covenant, with Abraham to make his descendants into a great nation and to give them a great land. Abraham shows strong faith in GOD, and GOD seals His Promise with a number of signs and tests. This special Covenant with GOD passes on to Abraham’s son, Isaac, and to his grandson, Jacob. Together, they represent the patriarchs of the Israelite people. Jacob’s twelve sons move to Egypt after the youngest brother, Joseph, miraculously becomes a high official in Egypt.
The Messianic Link: Messiah would be born of the seed of a woman. Gen 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. (KJV)
Descendant of Abraham, Isaac & Jacob. Genesis 17:9 And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. (KJV)
Genesis 28:14 And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. (KJV)
He would come from the royal line of Judah. Genesis 28:14 And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. (KJV)
John 1:49 Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel. (KJV)
Isaac represented him in Genesis 22
He was typified in Joseph in Genesis 37
Brief Summary of Genesis:
The story of Genesis is GOD’S Creation of the Universe and all living things; to the rebellion and fall of man and the redemption offered by GOD through the Coming Messiah (Gospel).
Sin enters when Eve and Adam ate the fruit of the ‘tree of the knowledge of good and evil in the Garden . . . which was specifically forbidden by GOD. Because of their disobedience, they were expelled from the Garden of Eden. It was there that the first murder was committed by Adam’s son, Cain, of his brother, Abel.
Mankind was destined after that, to struggle with sin and death, while waiting for the promised redemption in the form of a Messianic Saviour (Gen 3:15).
The whole Earth is flooded to destroy all life on Earth except Noah and his family in Chapters 6- 7, because the wickedness was so bad. Genesis 6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of his heart was only evil continually. (KJV)
Matthew 12:39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: (KJV) . . . The wickedness is worse today than back in Noah’s day because there are so many more people in the world. GOD promised there would be no more Floods, but GOD’S fury at the thoughts of people’s heart being only evil continually, shall indeed bring down His judgment on this entire world one day. This time it shall be by fire: 2 Peter 3:7 But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. (KJV) . . . By the same word . . . here we must consider the power of GOD’S Word. The same Word that made the Earth appear (Gen.1:3,6,9,11,14,24,29; John 1:1-3), shall on His command, be destroyed.
Are kept in store . . . it seems that this day of destruction is reserved for future use. Only GOD has control of that destruction. Some think that it is to be nuclear war (Zec.14:12). If that is the case, which very well could be, GOD is in complete control. Believe it.
Reserved unto fire . . . kept for that day to be burned up (2 Pet. 3:10). The first way that God destroyed the Earth because "the wickedness was great" (Gen.6:5), was by water. The next time will be by fire . . . for the SAME reason! "Every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually" . . . not only homosexuality, but abortion, adultery, fornication, murder, stealing, covetousness. . . on and on and on! When GOD’S wrath comes to a boiling point (Rom.2:5), the first thing that will happen is that the church will be removed (1 Thes.4:13-18). Then the horrible Great Tribulation shall start (Mat.24:21). The first 3 1/2 years will not be bad (Dan.9:27), but when the Antichrist breaks the peace treaty with Israel . . . look out (Rev.ch.6-18)! Keep your eyes on ISRAEL! She is the key!
Brief Summary of Genesis: GOD creates the heavens and the Earth and all living creatures over a period of 6 days, to rest on the seventh day.
Adam and Eve cause all Creation to fall into the curse after they disobeyed GOD and ate the forbidden fruit.
The first murder, Cain kills his brother Able and is forced into exile.
Noah builds the Ark to escape the coming Flood of GOD’S terrible judgement.
Nimrod builds the tower of Babel to reach up to the heavens.
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob guide and lead GOD’S people down to Egypt to escape famine.
Genesis is the first of the five books of the Pentateuch, each being mainly attributed to Moses.
There are some today who would like to place the Book of Genesis in the field of mythology (folklore); that would be a big mistake. This Book offers
EXODUS: Author – Moses. When: During the time of Moses, 1445-1406 B.C.
Exodus picks up 400 years after Joseph’s time in Egypt, when the respect the Egyptians had for Joseph had been forgotten. As a result, the Egyptians enslaved the Hebrews. The ‘Exodus’ refers to the events of GOD delivering His people from slavery in Egypt to freedom (Ex.1-14). The Israelites traveled with God through the wilderness to Mt. Sinai (Ex.15-19). This is one of the most momentous events in the history of GOD’S people, for it formed the basis for the Hebrews to form a relationship with GOD while in the wilderness. At Sinai GOD made a covenant with His people that they would follow Him and obey His rules (to be holy). The most familiar part of this is the 10 commandments found in Exodus 20. After the 10 commandments and further Laws GOD had for His people, we find the people confirm their willingness to obey the Covenant and Laws of God in Exodus 24. The rest of the book (Chapters 25-40) respects the priests, further instructions and Laws that lead us to the Book of Leviticus.
People & Places: Moses; Aaron; Jethro; Pharaoh . . . Egypt; Midian; Canaan; Mount Sinai.
The main story in the Book of Exodus is the departure of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt and the following 40 years in the desert wilderness of the Sinai. After being led there to avoid famine in Joseph’s time, they had become slaves. Now a new Pharoah rose up over Egypt, one who did not know Joseph. Exodus 1:8-10 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: 10 Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land. (KJV)
The feast of the Passover is inaugurated during this time as GOD spares the Israelite children from the angel of death that destroys the first-born of the Egyptians.
The occurrence of the burning bush (Ch.3:1-6), the partings of the Red sea, and the destruction of the Egyptian army (Ex.14), and the pillar of smoke by day and fire by night to lead the people (Ex.13:17-22), are notable events to say the least.
Moses parting the Red Sea is one of the most spectacular miracles in the Bible. As the Israelites are escaping from slavery in Egypt, they are trapped between the sea and the pursuing army. Moses tells the people to "stand firm and see the deliverance of the LORD." GOD provides a miracle, for them to escape . . . making a DRY path in the midst of the sea (Ex.14:16). When the people are safely on the other side, GOD sweeps away the Egyptian army into the sea by collapsing the walls of the sea. Through this remarkable miracle, God reveals His absolute power over ALL things.
Think about this: The GOD who parted the Red Sea, completely provided for the Israelites in the desert for 40 years, so even their clothes did not wear out, and raised Christ Jesus from the dead, is the EXACT same GOD we worship today. Have YOU put your faith in Him to protect you? Only He can do it! Deut. 8:4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell, these forty years. (KJV) Neh. 9:21 Yea, forty years didst thou sustain them in the wilderness, so that they lacked nothing; their clothes waxed not old, and their feet swelled not. (KJV)
How many Israelites left Egypt? I think the Bible tells us, because the men were counted.
Exodus 38:25-26 And the silver of them that were numbered of the congregation was an hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and threescore and fifteen shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary:26 A bekah for every man, that is, half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for every one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty men. (KJV) . . . So . . . IF the men between 20 and 60 was about 600,000, this number fits the number of contributions for the Tabernacle mentioned here. If we include the women, the number would double to 1,200,000, and counting the children under the age of 20, would probably double that number, which would make the total of about two and half million.
Can you even realize that many people? And The LORD God took care of their every NEED during those 40 years in the wilderness! What an awesome GOD!
After Egypt had suffered many devastating plagues sent by GOD, the Pharaoh finally decided to let the Hebrew people go, as Moses had asked. After the Hebrews left Egypt, Pharoah changed his mind, angered that he had lost his source of slave labor. He summoned his 600 best chariots, all the other chariots in the land, and marched his massive army in pursuit (Ex.14:6-8). When the Israelites saw Pharaoh's soldiers coming, they were terrified. They griped and blamed God and Moses, saying that they would rather be slaves again than die in the desert. Moses answered them. Exodus 14:13-14 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever. 14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace. (KJV)
I believe it is quite possible the Angel of the LORD (Jesus), in a pillar of cloud, stood between the people and the Egyptians, protecting the Hebrews. Exodus 14:15-16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward: 16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea. (KJV)
During the night, the Israelites fled through the Red Sea on dry ground, a wall of water to their right and to their left. The Egyptian army charged in after them.
Once the Israelites were safe on the other side, God commanded Moses to stretch out his hand again. As morning returned, the sea rolled back in, covering the Egyptian army, its chariots, and horses. Not one man survived (Ex.14:22-31). After witnessing this great miracle, the people believed in the LORD and His servant Moses.
In Exodus, we also see the beginning of the Levite priesthood, and the building and setting up of the Tabernacle. The Ten Commandments are set up (Ch. 20) and the worship of the golden calf brings down the wrath of GOD in chapter 32.
Chapter 35 sees the setting up of the Sabbath day as a day of rest.
In chapter 40, the Tabernacle was erected and the Glory of the LORD filled the Temple.
• GOD calls Moses to rescue His people from the land of Egypt.
• The Pharoah refuses and GOD sent 10 horrifying plagues.
• Pharoah eventually allows the Israelites to leave Egypt and they leave with as much gold and precious jewels they can carry. Egypt wanted rid of these people.
• The army of Pharoah chases after the Israelites after Pharoah changed his mind.
• Moses parts the sea and crosses over with the tribes of Israel.
• Pharoah and his army is drowned when the waters collapse on them half way across the dried up path of the sea.
• Moses and the people start on their journey to find a new land
The Messianic Link:
The Messiah is typified in the life of Moses.
The Passover Lamb of Exodus 12.
The Manna from heaven in Ch.16.
The rock that was struck at Horeb in Ch.17.
The Book of Exodus, apart from being an historical record of how GOD rescued His people from the Egyptians, is a record of Redemption and Deliverance (the Gospel). It symbolizes the way the LORD has delivered us from the bondage of sin, and freed us through the sacrificial offering of The LORD Jesus at Calvary (the Gospel).
The Books of Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy continue the explanation of GOD’S religious Laws and His Promises to the people. The people must keep these Laws to enter and enjoy the Promised Land, toward which they are heading. Even with GOD’S abiding Presence, the Israelites complain and disobey Him nonstop, provoking GOD to wrath. They wander the wilderness for forty years in search of the promised land. These Books continue the period of Moses’s legendary leadership and miracles until his uncommon death (Deut.34:1-6).
Date written - 1350 B.C. Author - Moses
Leviticus is one of the hardest Books of the Bible to understand because it is difficult to make an application to our lives. This Book contains a massive list of very specific rules and regulations for how to conduct sacrifices and make atonement for sins. There are some interesting points that can help us as we read this Book. (1). We learn that GOD dwells among His people in the Tabernacle. (2). We learn that GOD DID forgive sins under the Old Covenant. There are some Passages that say this in Leviticus (Lev.4:20, 26). (3). In Leviticus, we see just how important holiness is to our GOD. Dear one, we MUST approach GOD on His terms. We must do things His way, NOT just any way we decide. We must honor and respect His conditions and terms and do our best to abide by them. The word “holy” occurs over 60 times in less than 30 chapters.
Some verses that state we must be holy because GOD is holy:
Leviticus 11:44-45 For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 45 For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. (KJV)
Leviticus 20:26 And ye shall be holy unto me: for I the LORD am holy, and have severed you from other people, that ye should be mine. (KJV)
Leviticus 19:2 Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them, Ye shall be holy: for I the LORD your God am holy. (KJV)
Leviticus 21:8 Thou shalt sanctify him therefore; for he offereth the bread of thy God: he shall be holy unto thee: for I the LORD, which sanctify you, am holy. (KJV)
It may be helpful to break Leviticus into smaller parts.
Chapters 1-7 Laws of Acceptable Worship
Chapters 8-10 Laws Pertaining to the Priesthood
Chapters 11-16 Laws for Uncleanness
Chapters 17-27 Laws of Acceptable Living
In the Septuagint (The Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament), the third book of the Pentateuch is called "Levitikon" which relates to the Levites. The Levites was the tribe in Israel from which the priests and others prominent in the worship services were chosen, instead of the firstborn sons of all the tribes (Num. 3:45). Leviticus plays a very important and vital role in the Pentateuch. It is important to understand the Book of Exodus before reading Leviticus, and it seems just as important to read the Book of Leviticus before reading the Books of Numbers and Deuteronomy and the rest of the Old Testament. The purpose of the Book of Leviticus is to make a clear point on the holiness of GOD, and a clear difference on man’s sin in the light of GOD’S holiness. GOD provides the necessary way that sinners need to restore the fellowship that was lost between GOD and man as a result of the terrible defilement of sin in Genesis. GOD explains the Laws that make this restoration possible, in a general way and in a very specific way. These laws are intended to govern the lives of the people chosen to serve GOD. Because of the focus on GOD’S holiness and how to approach Him, the Book of Leviticus is clearly the most legal Book in the Old Testament. The main message of GOD’S Laws is seen in the absolute statement "Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy." The great climax of this Book is clearly seen in Leviticus 16 where GOD gives the instructions for making atonement for sin on the Great Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). When the high priest entered into the Holy of Holies and sprinkled the blood upon the Mercy Seat, the sins of the entire nation for the previous year were forgiven by GOD. The mercy which GOD showed on the Day of Atonement truly foreshadows the Work of Christ that the Leviticus 16 has been called "the most beautiful flower of all Messianic symbolism."
In addition to the moral, ceremonial and civil laws set forth in the Book of Leviticus, there are also some historical sections, but these also are centered around the priesthood. These historical portions include the consecration of the priests in Leviticus 8 and 9, the sin and punishment of Nadab and Abihu (Lev.10), and the stoning of the blasphemer (Lev.24:10). It is interesting that the Levites are not mentioned except one time very briefly (Lev.25:32).
Outline of the Book of Leviticus
#1. Laws concerning Sacrifice (1-7). In this section five types of offerings are discussed: burnt offerings, meal offerings, peace offerings sin offerings and guilt offerings. This is filled out by a discussion of the sin offering as it is to be observed by various classes of individuals.
#2. A historical section featuring the consecration of the priests (8-9) and the sin of Nadab and Abihu (Ch. 10).
#3. A section on laws of purification from ceremonial uncleanness (11-15). These furnish instructions as to the appropriate sacrifices and ordinances for ridding oneself of impurity.
#4. The Day of Atonement (Ch. 16).
#5. Laws dealing with the conduct of GOD’S people (17-20). These include various religious and ethical Laws designed to separate Israel and the heathen nations.
#6. Laws concerning the holiness of the priests (21-22).
#7. A discussion of holy days and feasts (23-24). Included in this section are the Sabbath, Passover, the Feasts of First Fruits and Harvest, Pentecost, the Day of Atonement and the Feast of Tabernacles.
#8. The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years (Ch. 25).
#9. Promises and warnings connected with obedience to the laws (Ch. 26).
#10. An addition containing the Laws concerning vows (Ch. 27).
Date written - 1350 B.C. Author - Moses
We find more Laws in the Book of Numbers. It should be clear to us by now, that Laws were very important to GOD, to let His people know what He expected of them. They had lived in Egypt for several hundred years. Egypt was a pagan society that worshipped several false-gods. It was important for GOD to re-connect with His people and lay down precise regulations about how He was to be worshipped and how to make atonement for sin through sacrifice. We also find in Numbers, more detailed stories about GOD’S people in the wilderness with GOD.
When GOD’S people left Egypt, they went into the wilderness and were on their way to the Promised Land with GOD as their Guide and Provider. They came to Sinai and GOD established the ground rules and a covenant with His people, which they agreed to obey (Ex.19:8; 24:3,7; Deut.5:27), but they did NOT obey! They left Sinai for the Promised Land, which now picks up in the Book of Numbers.
In Numbers 13 the Hebrews are right on the edge of the Promised Land. They send spies in to find out more about what they are up against. Instead of trusting God, Who promised them the land (Gen.12:5-7), they were afraid and decided not to invade the land (the land is currently the country of Israel today). Because they disobeyed GOD they would die in the wilderness as GOD would not allow them in the land for 40 years (Num.14:34). The rest of Numbers deals with more laws and some stories of their time in the wilderness.
The Book of Numbers is known as the Fourth Book of Moses.
This Book gets its name because it begins and ends with a census of the people, when the Israelite population is ‘numbered’ and their military strength assessed. By the time of the second census, 38 years had passed by, and all of the people who had originally left Egypt were gone, with the exception of Joshua and Caleb.
This Book brings out the grumbling nature of the Israelites; even that the manna from Heaven that the LORD provided, did not satisfy them!
When they refused to enter the land of the Canaanites out of fear of the natives, and in so doing disobeyed GOD in spite of the advice of Joshua and Caleb. The LORD condemned them to walk the desert until they had all perished. Only Joshua and Caleb out of the entire host would enter the ‘Promised Land.’
Rebellion against GOD and Moses by the people led to them being chastised with Fiery Serpents (Ch.21:5-6).
Moses ended up disobeying GOD because of the rebellious nature of the people (20:10-12). He suffered the Wrath of GOD by striking the Rock twice at the wilderness of Zin, when he was told just to speak to it. Moses did not give the LORD the respect that He was due. As promised, Moses never set foot in the ‘Promised Land’ . . . but, GOD did allow Moses to see the Land before he died. (Deut.34:1-7)
What can we today, learn from the Book of Numbers?
#1. More than anything, this Book tells us that the LORD is Holy, and that He must be taken at His Word; no matter how impossible the barriers may seem or how strong the opposition may be. When GOD opens the door, NO man can close it.
#2. Something that is hard to do . . . beware of grumbling! The rebellion of Korah (Ch.16:2-3), and/or Aaron and Miriam (Ch.12:1-9) had drastic consequences.
Christians an explanation for the mess that we are now all in . . . which is SIN!!! Dear one, the Book of Genesis is the divinely inspired Word of God (2 Tim.3:16)) . . . to remove Genesis, the concept of sin is removed! Because of SIN, we need a Saviour. Genesis is the Foundation of the Bible; to remove it would collapse the building.
Is the Gospel in the Old Testament?
YES! It certainly is!
The GOSPEL is in the Old Testament
The Bible Helps us Better Understand GOD
Gospel Briefs in Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers
Gospel Briefs in Deuteronomy and Joshua
Gospel Briefs in Judges and Ruth
Gospel Briefs in 1&2 Samuel and 1&2 Kings
Gospel Briefs in 1&2 Chronicles and Ezra
Gospel Briefs in Nehemiah and Esther
Gospel Briefs in Job and Psalms
Gospel Briefs in Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Song
Gospel Briefs in Isaiah Chapters 1-33
Gospel Briefs in Isaiah Chapters 34-66
Gospel Briefs in Jeremiah and Lamantations
Gospel Briefs in Ezekiel and Daniel
Gospel Briefs in Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah and Jonah
Gospel Briefs in Micah, Nahum, Habbakkuk and Zephaniah
Gospel Briefs in Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi
The GOSPEL IS in the OLD Testament
The Gospel IS in Exodus Chapter 12
The Gospel IS in Isaiah Chapter 53
The Gospel IS in Psalm 90
The Gospel For the Jews IS in the Old Testament
The Gospel IS in Many Places in OT, Many rolls of JESUS!
The Gospel, Special Comments to OT Books
The Gospel, WHAT Does GOD want From YOU?
The Gospel, Which Is the Truth of the Gospel?